Conditions that Cause Kidney Failure
Understanding causes of chronic kidney disease and ESRD
- Diabetic nephropathy—a glomerular disease caused by kidney damage due to diabetes. It’s the most common type of kidney disease in the U.S. and often leads to kidney failure.
- Glomerular disease or glomerulonephritis—damage to the filtering structures in the kidney (glomeruli) caused by inflammation. It may run in your family or be caused by an immune disorder or infection. It’s the second most common type of kidney disease in the U.S. and often leads to kidney failure.
- Acute kidney injury (AKI)—a sudden illness of the kidneys resulting from one of many causes. AKI may result from an injury that damages the kidneys or a lack of blood flow to the kidneys. It can also occur if urine is blocked from leaving the kidneys by something such as an enlarged prostate or kidney stones. The buildup of toxins and pressure can then cause kidney damage, which may lead to acute kidney failure.
- Polycystic kidney disease (PKD)—an inherited disease in which cysts (noncancerous masses) form in the kidneys. PKD may eventually lead to kidney failure.
- Nephrotic syndrome—a condition resulting from glomerular disease that’s caused by excess protein in your urine due to damage to the filtering structures in the kidney (glomeruli). Nephrotic syndrome can lead to high blood pressure and is a significant signal that your kidneys are not working well.
- Lupus nephritis—a condition caused by the autoimmune disease lupus, which results in kidney damage and scarring. Lupus nephritis can lead to CKD and eventually ESRD.
Learning the medical terms
Some of the names for types of kidney disease or conditions can seem complicated, until you understand the root of the words. Here are some definitions that may help:
Acute: happens suddenly
Chronic: happens over a long time, often years; can be repeated episodes or continuous
Glomerulus: one of the tiny filters inside the kidneys; plural is glomeruli
Nephro-: refers to the kidneys
-tic: related to